Fatalities from falls are the number one cause of workplace death in construction.
As reported in Remodeling in July 2011, the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ruled that “all residential construction employers must comply with 29 Code of Federal Regulations 1926.501(b)(13). Where residential builders can demonstrate that traditional fall protection is not feasible, this new code still allows for alternative means of providing protection.” A temporary enforcement policy was put in place.
OSHA recently announced it will extend, for six months, its temporary enforcement measures in residential construction. The measures will extended through September 15, 2012, and include priority free on-site compliance assistance, penalty reductions, extended abatement dates, measures to assure consistency, and increased outreach. 
For more information visit https://www.osha.gov/doc/topics/residentialprotection/index.html.